Sublime Sites

Explorations in the footsteps of Turner, Cotman and Ruskin with Professor David Hill

Turner on the Rhine: Binger Loch and Mausethurm

On 10 July 2014 Christie’s in London will sell a Turner watercolour of Binger Loch and Mausethurm (lot 214, estimate £200,000 – 300,000). This is one of a series of fifty-one* watercolours that Turner made in 1817 when he made a tour of the river Rhine between Cologne and Mainz. On Turner’s return the whole series was bought for 500 guineas by the artist’s Yorkshire patron Walter Fawkes of Farnley Hall, and celebrated thereafter as a direct and spontaneous encounter with one of the most Romantic areas of all Europe. This article considers the watercolour’s topographical content and the possibility that it might at least have been begun form nature.

J.M.W.Turner Binger Loch and Mausethurm, 1817 Watercolour and bodycolour on white paper prepared with a wash of grey, 194 x 311 mm, 7 5/8 x 12 1/4 ins Christie's, London, 10 July 2014, lot 214 Recording the view down the Rhine with Burg Klopp and Bingen to left, the Mausethurm centre, and Burg Ehrenfels to the right. Photograph courtesy of Christie’s Ltd. To jump to this watercolour in Christie’s online catalogue click on the following link, and then click your browser’s ‘back’ button to return to this page: http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/drawings-watercolors/joseph-mallord-william-turner-ra-binger-5812642-details.aspx

J.M.W.Turner
Binger Loch and Mausethurm, 1817
Watercolour and bodycolour on white paper prepared with a wash of grey, 194 x 311 mm, 7 5/8 x 12 1/4 ins
Christie’s, London, 10 July 2014, lot 214
Recording the view down the Rhine with Burg Klopp and Bingen to left, the Mausethurm centre, and Burg Ehrenfels to the right.
Photograph courtesy of Christie’s Ltd.
To jump to this watercolour in Christie’s online catalogue click on the following link, and then click your browser’s ‘back’ button to return to this page:
http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/drawings-watercolors/joseph-mallord-william-turner-ra-binger-5812642-details.aspx

 

Binger Loch and the Mausethurm with Burg Ehrenfels from the quay at Bingen Photograph by David Hill, 20 April 2006, 16.10 It is only on this line of sight that Ehrenfels can appear both in profile and silhouetted. Click on image to open full size

Binger Loch and the Mausethurm with Burg Ehrenfels from the quay at Bingen
Photograph by David Hill, 20 April 2006, 16.10
It is only on this line of sight that Ehrenfels can appear both in profile and silhouetted.
Click on image to open full size

 

 

 

J.M.W.Turner Waterloo and Rhine sketchbook Page spread with a group of sketches made from a boat on 27 August 1817 when travelling by boat down the Rhine from Mainz to St Goar, including (centre of page) From below Rudesheim looking to Bingen, the Mausethurm and Burg Ehrenfels. This sketch is usually said to be the direct basis of the watercolour, but this article tries to find some room for doubt. Pencil on paper, sketchbook page size (each) 150 x 94 mm, 5 7/8 x 3 11/16 ins Tate Britain, Turner Bequest TB CLX 71v-72r Photo courtesy of Tate. To see the sketches in Tate online catalogue of the Turner bequest, click on the following link, and then click your browser’s ‘back’ button to return to this page: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/turner-views-downstream-from-mid-river-1-to-bingen-and-rudesheim-sketch-of-rudesheim-to-d12841

J.M.W.Turner
Waterloo and Rhine sketchbook
Page spread with a group of sketches made from a boat on 27 August 1817 when travelling by boat down the Rhine from Mainz to St Goar, including
(centre of page) From below Rudesheim looking to Bingen, the Mausethurm and Burg Ehrenfels.
This sketch is usually said to be the direct basis of the watercolour, but this article tries to find some room for doubt.
Pencil on paper, sketchbook page size (each) 150 x 94 mm, 5 7/8 x 3 11/16 ins
Tate Britain, Turner Bequest TB CLX 71v-72r
Photo courtesy of Tate.
To see the sketches in Tate online catalogue of the Turner bequest, click on the following link, and then click your browser’s ‘back’ button to return to this page:
http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/turner-views-downstream-from-mid-river-1-to-bingen-and-rudesheim-sketch-of-rudesheim-to-d12841

Photograph by David Hill, 20 April 2006, 16.10 It is only on this line of sight that Ehrenfels can appear both in profile and silhouetted. Click on image to open full size.

Approaching Bingen from Rudesheim
Photograph by David Hill, 20 April 2006, 16.10
The same material as at the left side of Turner’s sketch and watercolour. Burg Klopp is to the left, with Bingen Crane and Toll House on the riverside in from, and Bingen Church just right of centre..
Click on image to open full size.

Google Earth aerial view of the Rhine at Bingen. With placemarks indicating the viewpoint of Turner’s sketch n yellow, and of the watercolour in blue. Click on image to open full size.

Google Earth aerial view of the Rhine at Bingen.
With placemarks indicating the viewpoint of Turner’s sketch n yellow, and of the watercolour in blue.
Click on image to open full size.

Mausethurm and Burg Ehrenfels from the quay at Bingen, overlooking the junction with the river Nahe. Photograph by David Hill, 21 April 2006, 08.45 From this viewpoint Burg Ehrenfels is seen against the steep vineyards amongst which it stands. The sunbathed slopes of Ehrenfels and brilliantly illuminated Mausethurm are the defining visual characters at the site. Click on image to open full size.

Mausethurm and Burg Ehrenfels from the quay at Bingen, overlooking the junction with the river Nahe.
Photograph by David Hill, 21 April 2006, 08.45
From this viewpoint Burg Ehrenfels is seen against the steep vineyards amongst which it stands. The sunbathed slopes of Ehrenfels and brilliantly illuminated Mausethurm are the defining visual characters at the site.
Click on image to open full size.

The early accounts of the series considered the watercolours to be sketches painted directly from nature. Ruskin said ‘every one… is the almost instantaneous record of an effect of colour or atmosphere, taken strictly from nature, the drawing and the details…being comparatively subordinate’ (note 1). Modern scholarship particularly that of Cecilia Powell, who has treated the tour in detail in her books Turner’s Rivers of Europe (1991) and Turner in Germany (1995) has questioned this. Christie’s catalogue notes review the context and arguments thoroughly drawing on Powell’s work.

The most important objection to the Rhine drawings being sketches from nature is that the watercolours are based upon pencil sketches that Turner made in the bound sketchbooks that Turner had with him. Powell argues that Turner painted the watercolours from these pencil sketches in the autumn of 1817 after his return to England, when he had plenty of time whilst making a tour to County Durham before visiting Farnley Hall (note 2). Powell’s account is detailed and convincing, but begs questions as to why some examples have no relation to pencil sketches, others show significant deviation from their related pencil sketches, and more generally as to why the works have a much more extemporised appearance than his usual studio work – in short they look like sketches – and why in relation to the occasion of their making he would be working on them whilst engaged sketching a completely different landscape, for a completely different project.

Given my avowed primary interest in Turner’s work on site, I do confess to always feeling drawn to the idea of Turner sketching in colour direct from nature. This sometimes in spite of the evidence. Over the last decade or so, however, I have visited and photographed all of Turner’s sites on the Rhine. Most of this was accomplished, I can boast, on a bicycle. The Rhine is splendid cycling terrain, there being a more-or-less dedicated cycling provision along most of its length. A boat might seem more appropriate, but in fact Turner made most of his sketches from the riverside, and the bike, I discovered, had the great advantage (at my rate of propulsion) of going much slower than any boat, so allowed proper time to take things in, and stopped more readily than a boat to allow photographs to be taken. Standing as often as I could on Turner’s exact viewpoints it emerges that the evidence by no means eliminates colouring from the motif. In fact, as at Bingen it suggests a multiplicity of practice. Artists rarely stick to just one method. I remember hearing David Hockney say at the beginning of a recent film that he renounced photography and computing in order to paint direct from nature in Yorkshire. At the end of the film when asked to comment on the fact that he had used cameras, film, computer processing, print and a whole array of practices besides painting, he looked unabashed: ‘Never believe what an artist says; only what they do’ (note 3). In the case of Bingen Turner seems to have done a variety of things, including painting from nature.

Powell’s most developed treatment of this specific subject is in Turner’s Rivers of Europe (1991) where a pencil sketch of the subject (Tate, TB CLX 71v-72r, see repr. above) was exhibited and reproduced as no.2, and the watercolour as no.11, and Powell states that the watercolour was based directly on the sketch. Comparison of sketch and watercolour confirms an obvious relationship, but it is my purpose here to loosen the directness of that relationship, and create some room for the watercolour to at least have been begun from the motif.

Since there will be no disagreement that the pencil sketch was done from nature, let us consider that first. Powell establishes that it was made from a boat on 27 August 1817 as Turner sailed downstream from to Bingen from St Goar. The viewpoint is midstream immediately below Rudesheim, looking west downstream with (from left to right) Burg Klopp, the spire of Bingen Church, the riverside crane of Bingen, the Mausethurm in distant mid-river and Burg Ehrenfels closing the view to the right. Individual buildings have since been restored or rebuilt – Burg Klopp and the Mausethurm particularly, but the positioning of everything in the sketch is perfectly naturalistic and all of the elements are easily identifiable to this day.

There are numerous differences, however, between the sketch and the watercolour. The most obvious and perhaps significant deviation is that the watercolour appears to be taken from a different viewpoint, rather nearer to Burg Ehrenfels. For the castle towers to appear against the sky as in the watercolour, one needs to be nearer the mouth of the river Nahe as in the photograph above. For it to still appear on the shoulder of the curve of that bank, however, one cannot be any further downstream. Even by the time one arrives at the downstream end of Bingen quay, where it meets the Nahe, the castle drops below the horizon of its bank. In fact the view of Ehrenfels shown in the watercolour is exclusive to a line of sight running from Bingen quay a hundred meters or so upstream of the confluence with the Nahe.

It has to be admitted that the comparison also presents difficulties for the plein-air argument. The pencil sketch accurately records Bingen Klopp, Bingen Church and Bingen Crane from its mid-river viewpoint. They are far less accurately depicted in the watercolour, and most problematically of all, the fact that they are included at all is incompatible with the apparent viewpoint on Burg Ehrenfels, since on that line of sight, Bingen and Burg Klopp are out of scope to the left.

The main point of painting from nature would be to record an effect, so it is perhaps worth giving some consideration to that aspect. The watercolour puts the sun to the left, shining brightly on Burg Ehrenfels and its slopes, and illuminating the spire and roof of Bingen Church to the left and the Mausethurm in mid-river. As a perusal of the many photographs of this view on the internet will reveal, the way in which the sun strikes Burg Ehrenfels and its steep vine-clad slopes is one of the site’s distinguishing visual characteristics. Its lack rendered dull my photograph taken in the later afternoon, but brings to life a second photo taken in the morning. The same effect forms the raison d’etre of the watercolour, and Turner has gone to quite some lengths to give the effect of the vines in working up the texture of those sunlight slopes. The most specific phenomenon of all in the watercolour, moreover, is the peculiarly-shaped shadow on the slopes below the castle. This suggests the passing of a cloud, but at the same time does more. Its peculiarity is the product of the two bars at its top right. Comparison with the photographs quite readily suggests their significance; they represent the terraced roadways that cross the slopes, and which characterise the site to this day. There is no sign whatsoever of these in the pencil sketch.

Again some objection to this might be admitted. Turner’s viewpoint here is due west, so the light is to the south. Although the effect is generally consistent with the orientation, the sharpness of the contrast suggests a low angle of incidence more typical of early morning or evening than the middle of the day. It is probably worth noting here that when the watercolour was listed in a manuscript catalogue of the Farnley Hall collection compiled in 1850, it was described as ‘Sketches on the Rhine (in a case) no.9, Bingen Loch & Mausethurm N. 12 3/8 x 8’ (note 4). The list was compiled by the son of Turner’s patron, Francis Hawksworth Fawkes, working presumably from old notes and inscriptions, and was shown to Turner for his approval (note 5). It is perhaps significant that the description assumes that the view was looking to the north. This has a certain logic – the Rhine flows generally to the north, but it twists and turns in this stretch so much that it is easy to confuse one’s bearings. If the mistake originated with Turner, then it would explain him thinking that a low light was appropriate for his highlights.

So whilst there seems to be sufficient observed particularity in the watercolour to suggest that it records some things quite independently of the pencil sketch, there are equally things in it, particularly the whole of the left middle distance comprising of Bingen Klopp and Bingen church, that cannot have been observed from the viewpoint of the watercolour, and must have been brought in from the sketch. Although this is complicated, and perhaps untidily equivocal, it is perhaps inherently more likely than a simple either/or scenario. My surmise from this is that Turner began the watercolour from nature, independently of the sketch, but worked it up later to give it a degree of finish so that it might be made presentable. When this working-up was done is impossible to say. Some work might have been done in his rooms as he progressed along the tour, some back in London, some in County Durham and some even (and perhaps most likely of all) after Fawkes had indicated an interest in the group whilst Turner was staying at Farnley Hall in the Autumn of 1817.

Beyond this point the river narrows to the dangerous passage called the Binger Loch between the Mausethurm and Ehrenfels. This stretch of river was beset by swift currents, jutting rocks and submerged reefs and was one of the most notoriously dangerous stretches of the whole Rhine. The castles of Bingen and Ehrenfels and the Mausethurm had grown up to control the passage, and to provide pilotage and extract tolls. The river was largely unimproved in 1817, remained so until two narrow channels were cleared in the 1830’s, and the main channels not finally cleared until as recently as the 1970s. Powell 1991 (repeated in Christie’s catalogue notes) very well describes how Turner develops this theme by contrasting the light, width and peace of the foreground, with the cold confines of the Loch, presaged by protruding rocks at the left and presided over by the haloed tower of Ehrenfels. The ripples around this rock are brilliantly repeated in the light glittering from the disturbed waters in the distance. It is typical of Turner’s practice that there is such specific and imaginative topographical and phenomenal content in this picture, and indeed in each one of the Rhine series watercolours. We may indeed question some of the details of the story told of the Rhine drawings by Walter Thornbury, but he was was certainly right when he called them ‘miracles of skill, genius and industry’. Further, he added: ‘These Rhenish drawings are most exquisite for sad tenderness, purity, twilight, poetry, truth, and perfection of harmony. They are to the eye what the finest verse of Tennyson are to the ear; and they do what so few things on earth do: they completely satisfy the mind’ (note 6).

 

Notes:

I am grateful to Harriet Drummond and Rosy Temple at Christie’s, London for an image of the watercolour and permission to reproduce.

*The number is slightly controversial, Cecilia Powell (Turner in Germany, 1995, p.26 and Cat. no.17) prefers fifty. Despite the arguments the principal source must be the Farnley Hall catalogue of the collection in 1850 (see note 4), which Turner approved (see note 5), and which lists the Rhine drawings as a group of fifty-one.

1              In his pamphlet ‘Pre-Raphaelitism’, published in 1851, and written around the Turner works that he had seen at Farnley Hall; in E.T. Cook and A. Wedderburn, The Works of John Ruskin, Library Edition, 1903-12, Volume 12, p. 376-7. The reference is worth reading in its original context. Ruskin’s core idea is that Turner’s study of exceptional phenomena on this tour to the Rhine liberated him into the colour and effect of his later career.

2              See C. Powell, Turner’s Rivers of Europe, Tate, 1991, especially ‘Waterloo and the Rhineland 1817’ p.20-36, and Turner in Germany, Tate, 1995, especially ‘The First Visit to the Rhine, 1817’, pp. 20-29.

3              Bruno Wollheim, David Hockney: A Bigger Picture, Coluga Pictures, 2007.

4              ‘A Catalogue of the Oil Paintings and Watercolour drawings and Sketches in Watercolours by J M W Turner RA in the possession of F H Fawkes Esqre of Farnley Hall, Otley, Yorkshire, A.D. 1850’, National Art Library, V&A Museum; a later copy is at Bradford Central Libraries. No transcript of this catalogue has been published.

5              See John Gage, Collected Correspondence of J M W Turner, 1980, no.318: ‘Your catalogue is capital yet I could wish to see the Total number even in writing even at the end.’

6              Walter Thornbury, The Life and Correspondence of J M W Turner, (1862) 1877 edition, p. 238.

 

And finally I ought to mention my fellow cyclists in 2006; Robert Waterhouse, Eric Howell and Ken Guest, together with the pedestrian Philip Morris, who put up with the constant stoppages for ‘Turnering’, occasionally feigned some interest and behaved with commendable but uncharacteristic decorum at the ‘Rhinelust’ in Boppard.

 

Bike near Bingen

 

4 comments on “Turner on the Rhine: Binger Loch and Mausethurm

  1. Pingback: TateShots: Watercolour | mostly music

  2. Mary Tussey Morrell
    February 4, 2015

    This is one of Turner’s watercolor and bodycolor sketches from his second continental tour in 1817 when he walked along the Route Napoleon in the Rhine gorge at the end of August, 1817. He was 42 years old and at the height of his powers. He produced 7 versions of the Lorelei in an entire series of 51 drawings, as he romanticized the picturesque Rhine some years before Heine’s poem of 1821. In line with his consistent sketching practice while touring, he produced numerous pencil sketches in three leather-bound sketchbooks as well as color studies, these last on grey-washed paper in bodycolor to allow for quick sketching. Most of the subjects are within easy walking distance of St. Goar and St. Goarshausen, as is the Lorelei, Katz Castle and Rheinfels, so Turner could have produced several sketches at once by finishing his drawings at night in his apartment at the inn. When he returned to Farnley Hall, Yorkshire, England in September he had a roll of drawings he presented to his friend and patron Walter Fawkes, who purchased all 51 painted drawings for 500 pounds. All nineteenth century accounts agree on these facts about the Rhine series of 1817. But after A.J. Finberg published a book on Farnley drawings in about 1912, by which time two-thirds of the series had already been sold at Christie’s in 1890, later writers accepted his description of the sketches as “finished watercolor drawings” painted after Turner’s return to England. He suggests that Turner only “returned” to Farnley at the end of November and completed the Rhine series while traveling in the north of England in the autumn of 1817. This new theory contradicts all nineteenth century accounts from Farnley Hall and published by Turner’s early biographers; it is not substantiated, however, by the sketch-like quality of the drawings, the more straightforward dating of the early accounts, and Turner’s life-long practice of sketching in color while on tour, often from the windows of his hotel or inn. For example, while touring the Isle of Wight in 1795 more than two decades earlier he had produced painted sketches of a quality and character that compare with and preview what would become a more mature competence in the colored drawings–often with similar unfinished foregrounds–produced later on the Rhine tour (vide T.B. XXIV for 11 painted sketches of scenes from the Isle of Wight). The aim of the 1817 sketches reaches far beyond the topographic purpose of the pencil sketches from this tour in capturing special moments of light that enliven a prosaic scene: extraordinary and romantic atmospheric effects of moonlight, rainbow, rain clearing after a thunderstorm, mist rising from the river, sunset glowing golden on the cliff of the Lorelei suggesting the maiden’s golden hair… While the same subjects are repeated in pencil and painted scenes, the viewpoints rarely correspond. Their purpose and meaning were distinct. The travel literature Turner read, as evidenced in the ink notes that he made in his Itinerary Rhine Tour sketchbook, in particular the excerpts from John Gardner, provided the subjects, the medieval legends, historic associations, and prescriptions for catching special moments of light at sunrise or twilight that made his castellated river scenes so romantically evocative. Turner even recorded the names of specific inns that would provide scenic views for the artist on his Rhine tour. For all his diligence and indefatigable persistence in constantly sketching and drawing, he was not essentially a topographical artist, but a romantic seeking to combine historical, emotional, and aesthetic significance in the views he captured. Germany had been England’s ally in defeating Napoleon, and he was celebrating German landscapes rich in medieval legend and history in the excitement and spirit of a fellow victor. The later Rhine views from 1819 or 1820, which mimic earlier subjects, lack the inspiration of direct experience from nature seen in the 1817 series; they have a bland and limited palette of blues and yellows, distorted proportions, and excessive detail marking them as studio productions. As with the colored sketches in the St. Gothard and Mt. Blanc sketchbook of 1802, there is a sense of immediate excitement and delicacy of touch in capturing views on the spot in these efforts from his second tour across the channel. This Rhine journey marks the beginning of the second half of Turner’s career during which he will make annual tours on the continent nearly every summer, returning with a cache of painted preparatory sketches to be developed in his studio in the winter as finished watercolors and oils for the spring exhibitions at the Royal Academy.
    Well, David, here in brief is my account of the Rhine series. Most of the drawings were sold at Christies in 1890 by Ayscough Fawkes, so only 16 were left when Finberg published his account in c. 1912. Then WWI and WWII intervened and broke unfortunately the traditional scholarly connections with the Farnley list of the series from 1850 (in the Victoria and Albert Library as we once visited), the Atheneum account and family story from the time of Walter Fawkes.

    • Professor David Hill
      February 6, 2015

      I’m very happy that SublimeSites has brought me back into correspondence with Mary Tussey Morrell. Back in the 1970s when we were writing our Ph.Ds we enjoyed a lot of tramping around after Turner. Mary wrote her Ph.D on the Rhine drawings of 1817 for Stanford University, and contributed the scholarly commentaries on the Rhine drawings for the catalogue of the Turner in Yorkshire exhibition that we worked on together with Stanley Warburton and Richard Green at York City Art Gallery in 1980. I’m eternally grateful to her for marching up to the door of Farnley Hall and asking whether we could come in and see the watercolours, whilst I lagged in the background. Happy days.

      • Mary Tussey Morrell
        February 11, 2015

        I’m very happy too to have discovered your blog and to be able to share thoughts and discoveries regarding Turner again. Recently I have been researching digital images (jpg format) of the 51 Rhine drawings, and am glad to have been able to find 40. There is an online ebook of the catalog of the Exhibition of Works by the Old Masters and by Deceased…1889 Winter Exhibition at the Royal Academy (from the University of California Press), which lists 73 watercolor drawings by Turner from the collection of Ayscough Fawkes at the end, with the Rhine drawings numbered 23-73. (1) Brief descriptions of the compositions of the drawings are included, which provide a helpful way to verify the subjects. The introduction to the “RHINE SKETCHES” echoes the account in the Thornbury biography, referring to the grey tinted paper to allow washes to be applied and the scraping out of the lights, as well as the use of bodycolor — all to “enable the marvelous power and rapidity with which he always worked.”
        In particular, the drawing titled “Entrance of the Lahn” has seemed to me to be a prime telltale instance where Turner was not relying on the pencil sketches from his journey, but was capturing a splendid effect of a thunderstorm passing and the light returning in the sky after a rain shower as he adopts a different viewpoint, somewhat further along the Route Napoleon from the pencil sketches, for his colored sketch. We see the road above the river to the right of the composition Pencil obviously would not have served his purpose in capturing this atmospheric drama, wonderfully delineated in specific tones that could not have been evoked from memory.
        Having visited and photographed so many of these drawings in person, I remember them and take them to heart. In general they conform to his practice of sketching and working directly from nature either on the spot or in the apartment of his hotel room, as later he would make drawings of the Blue and Red Rigi from the Schwan Inn in Lucerne, Switzerland or even his room itself at the Hotel Europa in Venice, Italy on later continental tours. Turner made notes from Rhenish travel literature. On page 24 of the Itinerary Rhine Tour sketchbook, T.B. CLIX, he writes in ink–presumably before his actual journey– “St. Goar a small distance below Vessel, a dangerous whirlpool a mile below where the banks are very close; Castle of Rhenfels [sic] good Inn.. the Bois Verd…The castle of the Cat seen from the Inn”; on page 26 he continues “The Entrance of the Lahn.. .Castle of Capelle seen from the Inn”; on page 27 the heading is “Coblentz” with notes” The Bridge over the Moselle” and “Inn …opposite Ehrenbreitstein Friar’s Grace.”
        The “dangerous whirlpool” near St. Goar lies in the waters below the Lorelei, which he would paint 7 times in this series, and almost never again for this key subject reminded him of his friendship with Walter Fawkes, who passed away in 1825. Visiting Farnley Hall in the 1830’s Turner was conversing amiably with Walter’s son Hawkey, but “When they came to the grey Lorelei, tears sprang out of the old man’s eyes …” (recorded in Thornbury’s Life of J.M.W. Turner).

        There’s a new William Turner Route in the Middle Rhine Valley, supposed to have opened in 2014, as described here: http://www.dw.de/through-the-eyes-of-a-painter/a-17000365
        You can find a picture of “A summer evening on William Turner Plaza in St. Goar”

        Cheers and a thumbs up to you David– your usual greeting to me back in the day as I embarked or disembarked from the trains from London arriving in Leeds.

        Dr. Mary Tussey Morrell

        (1) https://books.google.com/books?id=zqlFAQAAMAAJ

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